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PostPosted: Mon Feb 11, 2019 3:05 am 
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Joined: Tue Jan 25, 2011 8:51 pm
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Welcome to C++

C++ is a general-purpose programming language.
C++ is used to create computer programs. Anything from art applications, music players
and even video games!
C++ was derived from C, and is largely based on it.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Your First C++ Program

A C++ program is a collection of commands or statements.

Below is a simple code that has "Hello world!" as its output.

#include <iostream>
using namespace std;
int main()
{
cout << "Hello world!";
return 0;
}

Let's break down the parts of the code.
#include <iostream>

C++ offers various headers, each of which contains information needed for programs
to work properly. This particular program calls for the header <iostream>.
The number sign (#) at the beginning of a line targets the compiler's pre-processor.
In this case, #include tells the pre-processor to include the <iostream> header.
The <iostream> header defines the standard stream objects that input and output data.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Your First C++ Program

The C++ compiler ignores blank lines.
In general, blank lines serve to improve the code's readability and structure.
Whitespace, such as spaces, tabs, and newlines, is also ignored, although it is used
to enhance the program's visual attractiveness.

#include <iostream>
using namespace std;

int main()
{
cout << "Hello world!";
return 0;
}

In our code, the line using namespace std; tells the compiler to use the std (standard)
namespace.
The std namespace includes features of the C++ Standard Library.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Main

Program execution begins with the main function, int main().

#include <iostream>
using namespace std;

int main()
{
cout << "Hello world!";
return 0;
}

Curly brackets { } indicate the beginning and end of a function, which can also be called
the function's body. The information inside the brackets indicates what the function does
when executed.
The entry point of every C++ program is main(), irrespective of what the program does.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Your First C++ Program

The next line, cout << "Hello world!"; results in the display of "Hello world!" to the screen.

#include <iostream>
using namespace std;
int main()
{
cout << "Hello world!";
return 0;
}

In C++, streams are used to perform input and output operations.
In most program environments, the standard default output destination is the screen. In C++, cout
is the stream object used to access it.
cout is used in combination with the insertion operator. Write the insertion operator as << to insert
the data that comes after it into the stream that comes before.
In C++, the semicolon is used to terminate a statement. Each statement must end with a semicolon.
It indicates the end of one logical expression.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Statements

A block is a set of logically connected statements, surrounded by opening and closing curly braces.
For example:

{
cout << "Hello world!";
return 0;
}

You can have multiple statements on a single line, as long as you remember to end each statement
with a semicolon. Failing to do so will result in an error.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Return

The last instruction in the program is the return statement. The line return 0; terminates the
main() function and causes it to return the value 0 to the calling process. A non-zero value
(usually of 1) signals abnormal termination.

#include <iostream>
using namespace std;

int main()
{
cout << "Hello world!";
return 0;
}

If the return statement is left off, the C++ compiler implicitly inserts "return 0;" to the end
of the main() function.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Rearrange the code blocks to form a valid C++ program:
#include <iostream>
using namespace std;
int main() {
cout << "Awesome!"; return 0;
}
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Getting the Tools

You can run, save, and share your C++ codes on our Code Playground, without installing any
additional software.
Reference this lesson if you need to install the software on your computer.

You need both of the following components to build C++ programs.
1. Integrated Development Environment (IDE): Provides tools for writing source code. Any
text editor can be used as an IDE.
2. Compiler: Compiles source code into the final executable program. There are a number
of C++ compilers available. The most frequently used and free available compiler is the GNU C/C++ compiler.

Various C++ IDEs and compilers are available. We'll use a free tool called Code::Blocks,
which includes both an IDE and a compiler, and is available for Windows, Linux and MacOS.
To download Code::Blocks, go to http://www.codeblocks.org/, Click the Downloads link, and
choose "Download the binary release".
Choose your OS and download the setup file, which includes the C++ compiler (For Windows,
it's the one with mingw in the name).
Make sure to install the version that includes the compiler.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Getting the Tools

To create a project, open Code::Blocks and click "Create a new project" (or File->New->Project).
This will open a dialog of project templates. Choose Console application and click Go.
Go through the wizard, making sure that C++ is selected as the language.
Give your project a name and specify a folder to save it to.
Make sure the Compiler is selected, and click Finish.
GNU GCC is one of the popular compilers available for Code::Blocks.
On the left sidebar, expand Sources. You'll see your project, along with its source files.
Code::Blocks automatically created a main.cpp file that includes a basic Hello World program
(C++ source files have .cpp, .cp or .c extensions).
Click on the "Build and Run" icon in the toolbar to compile and run the program.
A console window will open and display program output.
Congratulations! You just compiled and ran your first C++ program!
You can run, save, and share your C++ codes on our Code Playground, without installing any
additional software.
Reference this lesson if you need to install the software on your computer.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Your First C++ Program

You can add multiple insertion operators after cout.
cout << "This " << "is " << "awesome!";
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
New Line

The cout operator does not insert a line break at the end of the output.
One way to print two lines is to use the endl manipulator, which will put in a line break.
#include <iostream>
using namespace std;

int main()
{
cout << "Hello world!" << endl;
cout << "I love programming!";
return 0;
}
Try It Yourself

The endl manipulator moves down to a new line to print the second text.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
New Lines

The new line character \n can be used as an alternative to endl.
The backslash (\) is called an escape character, and indicates a "special" character.

Example:
#include <iostream>
using namespace std;

int main()
{
cout << "Hello world! \n";
cout << "I love programming!";
return 0;
}
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
New Lines

Two newline characters placed together result in a blank line.
#include <iostream>
using namespace std;

int main()
{
cout << "Hello world! \n\n";
cout << "I love programming!";
return 0;
}
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Fill in the blanks to print the words "hello" and "world" separated by a blank line:

cout<< "hello \n\n";
cout <<"world";
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Multiple New Lines

Using a single cout statement with as many instances of \n as your program requires will print
out multiple lines of text.

#include <iostream>
using namespace std;

int main()
{
cout << " Hello \n world! \n I \n love \n programming!";
return 0;
}
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Comments

Comments are explanatory statements that you can include in the C++ code to explain what the code is doing.
The compiler ignores everything that appears in the comment, so none of that information shows in the result.

A comment beginning with two slashes (//) is called a single-line comment. The slashes tell the compiler
to ignore everything that follows, until the end of the line.

For example:

#include <iostream>
using namespace std;

int main()
{
// prints "Hello world"
cout << "Hello world!";
return 0;
}
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Multi-Line Comments

Comments that require multiple lines begin with /* and end with */
You can place them on the same line or insert one or more lines between them.
/* This is a comment */

/* C++ comments can
span multiple lines
*/
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Using Comments

Comments can be written anywhere, and can be repeated any number of times throughout the code.
Within a comment marked with /* and */, // characters have no special meaning, and vice versa.
This allows you to "nest" one comment type within the other.

/* Comment out printing of Hello world!
cout << "Hello world!"; // prints Hello world!
*/

Adding comments to your code is a good practice. It facilitates a clear understanding of the
code for you and for others who read it.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Variables

Creating a variable reserves a memory location, or a space in memory for storing values. The compiler
requires that you provide a data type for each variable you declare.
C++ offer a rich assortment of built-in as well as user defined data types.
Integer, a built-in type, represents a whole number value. Define integer using the keyword int.
C++ requires that you specify the type and the identifier for each variable defined.
An identifier is a name for a variable, function, class, module, or any other user-defined item. An
identifier starts with a letter (A-Z or a-z) or an underscore (_), followed by additional letters,
underscores, and digits (0 to 9).
For example, define a variable called myVariable that can hold integer values as follows:

int myVariable = 10;
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Variables

Now, let's assign a value to the variable and print it.
#include <iostream>
using namespace std;
int main()
{
int myVariable = 10;
cout << myVariable;
return 0;
}
// Outputs 10

The C++ programming language is case-sensitive, so myVariable and myvariable are two different identifiers.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Variables

Define all variables with a name and a data type before using them in a program. In cases in which you
have multiple variables of the same type, it's possible to define them in one declaration, separating
them with commas.

int a, b;
// defines two variables of type int

A variable can be assigned a value, and can be used to perform operations.
For example, we can create an additional variable called sum, and add two variables together.
int a = 30;
int b = 15;
int sum = a + b;
// Now sum equals 45

Use the + operator to add two numbers.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Variables

Let's create a program to calculate and print the sum of two integers.
#include <iostream>
using namespace std;
int main()
{
int a = 30;
int b = 12;
int sum = a + b;
cout << sum;
return 0;
}

//Outputs 42

Always keep in mind that all variables must be defined with a name and a data type before they can be used.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Declaring Variables

You have the option to assign a value to the variable at the time you declare the variable or to
declare it and assign a value later.
You can also change the value of a variable.
Some examples:
int a;
int b = 42;

a = 10;
b = 3;
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
User Input

To enable the user to input a value, use cin in combination with the extraction operator (>>). The variable
containing the extracted data follows the operator.
The following example shows how to accept user input and store it in the num variable:

int num;
cin >> num;

As with cout, extractions on cin can be chained to request more than one input in a single
statement: cin >> a >> b;
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Accepting User Input

The following program prompts the user to input a number and stores it in the variable a:
#include <iostream>
using namespace std;

int main()
{
int a;
cout << "Please enter a number \n";
cin >> a;
return 0;
}

When the program runs, it displays the message "Please enter a number", and then waits for the user to
enter a number and press Enter, or Return.
The entered number is stored in the variable a.
The program will wait for as long as the user needs to type in a number.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Accepting User Input

You can accept user input multiple times throughout the program:
#include <iostream>
using namespace std;
int main()
{
int a, b;
cout << "Enter a number \n";
cin >> a;
cout << "Enter another number \n";
cin >> b;

return 0;
}
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Accepting User Input

Let's create a program that accepts the input of two numbers and prints their sum.
#include <iostream>
using namespace std;

int main()
{
int a, b;
int sum;
cout << "Enter a number \n";
cin >> a;
cout << "Enter another number \n";
cin >> b;
sum = a + b;
cout << "Sum is: " << sum << endl;
return 0;
}
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Variables

Specifying the data type is required just once, at the time when the variable is declared.
After that, the variable may be used without referring to the data type.

int a;
a = 10;

Specifying the data type for a given variable more than once results in a syntax error.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Variables

A variable's value may be changed as many times as necessary throughout the program.
For example:

int a = 100;
a = 50;
cout << a;

// Outputs 50
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Arithmetic Operators

C++ supports these arithmetic operators. + - * / %
The addition operator adds its operands together.
int x = 40 + 60;
cout << x;

// Outputs 100
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Subtraction

The subtraction operator subtracts one operand from the other.
int x = 100 - 60;
cout << x;

//Outputs 40
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Multiplication

The multiplication operator multiplies its operands.
int x = 5 * 6;
cout << x;

//Outputs 30
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Division

The division operator divides the first operand by the second. Any remainder is dropped in order to
return an integer value.
Example:
int x = 10 / 3;
cout << x;
// Outputs 3
If one or both of the operands are floating point values, the division operator performs floating
point division.
Dividing by 0 will crash your program.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Modulus

The modulus operator (%) is informally known as the remainder operator because it returns the remainder
after an integer division.

For example:
int x = 25 % 7;
cout << x;

// Outputs 4
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Operator Precedence

Operator precedence determines the grouping of terms in an expression, which affects how an expression
is evaluated. Certain operators take higher precedence over others; for example, the multiplication
operator has higher precedence over the addition operator.
For example:

int x = 5+2*2;
cout << x;
// Outputs 9

The program evaluates 2*2 first, and then adds the result to 5.
As in mathematics, using parentheses alters operator precedence.

int x = (5 + 2) *2;
cout << x;

// Outputs 14
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Operator Precedence

Parentheses force the operations to have higher precedence. If there are parenthetical expressions
nested within one another, the expression within the innermost parentheses is evaluated first.
If none of the expressions are in parentheses, multiplicative (multiplication, division, modulus)
operators will be evaluated before additive (addition, subtraction) operators.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Assignment Operators

The simple assignment operator (=) assigns the right side to the left side.
C++ provides shorthand operators that have the capability of performing an operation and an assignment
at the same time.
For example:

int x = 10;
x += 4; // equivalent to x = x + 4
x -= 5; // equivalent to x = x - 5
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Assignment Operators

The same shorthand syntax applies to the multiplication, division, and modulus operators.
x *= 3; // equivalent to x = x * 3
x /= 2; // equivalent to x = x / 2
x %= 4; // equivalent to x = x % 4
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Increment Operator

The increment operator is used to increase an integer's value by one, and is a commonly used C++ operator.
x++; //equivalent to x = x + 1
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Increment Operator

For example:
int x = 11;
x++;
cout << x;

//Outputs 12
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Increment Operator

The increment operator has two forms, prefix and postfix.
++x; //prefix
x++; //postfix

Prefix increments the value, and then proceeds with the expression.
Postfix evaluates the expression and then performs the incrementing.

Prefix example:
x = 5;
y = ++x;
// x is 6, y is 6

Postfix example:
x = 5;
y = x++;
// x is 6, y is 5

The prefix example increments the value of x, and then assigns it to y.
The postfix example assigns the value of x to y, and then increments it.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Decrement Operator

The decrement operator (--) works in much the same way as the increment operator, but instead of increasing
the value, it decreases it by one.
--x; // prefix
x--; // postfix
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Decision Making

The if statement is used to execute some code if a condition is true.

Syntax:
if (condition) {
//statements
}

The condition specifies which expression is to be evaluated. If the condition is true, the statements
in the curly brackets are executed.
If the condition is false, the statements are simply ignored, and the program continues to run after
the if statements body.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
The if Statement

Use relational operators to evaluate conditions.

For example:
if (7 > 4) {
cout << "Yes";
}
// Outputs "Yes"

The if statement evaluates the condition (7>4), finds it to be true, and then executes the cout statement.
If we change the greater operator to a less than operator (7<4), the statement will not be executed and
nothing will be printed out.
A condition specified in an if statement does not require a semicolon.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Relational Operators
Additional relational operators: >= <= == !=
Example:
if (10 == 10) {
cout << "Yes";
}
// Outputs "Yes"
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Relational Operators

The not equal to operator evaluates the operands, determines whether or not they are equal. If the operands are not equal, the condition is evaluated to true.
For example:

if (10 != 10) {
cout << "Yes";
}

The above condition evaluates to false and the block of code is not executed.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Relational Operators

You can use relational operators to compare variables in the if statement.
For example:
int a = 55;
int b = 33;
if (a > b) {
cout << "a is greater than b";
}

// Outputs "a is greater than b"
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
The else Statement

An if statement can be followed by an optional else statement, which executes when the
condition is false.
Syntax:

if (condition) {
//statements
}
else {
//statements
}

The compiler will test the condition:
- If it evaluates to true, then the code inside the if statement will be executed.
- If it evaluates to false, then the code inside the else statement will be executed.
When only one statement is used inside the if/else, then the curly braces can be omitted.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
The else Statement
For example:

int mark = 90;
if (mark < 50) {
cout << "You failed." << endl;
}
else {
cout << "You passed." << endl;
}
// Outputs "You passed."
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
The else Statement

In all previous examples only one statement was used inside the if/else statement, but
you may include as many statements as you want.

For example:
int mark = 90;
if (mark < 50) {
cout << "You failed." << endl;
cout << "Sorry" << endl;
}
else {
cout << "Congratulations!" << endl;
cout << "You passed." << endl;
cout << "You are awesome!" << endl;
}

/* Outputs
Congratulations!
You passed.
You are awesome!
*/
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Nested if Statements

You can also include, or nest, if statements within another if statement.
For example:

int mark = 100;
if (mark >= 50) {
cout << "You passed." << endl;
if (mark == 100) {
cout <<"Perfect!" << endl;
}
}
else {
cout << "You failed." << endl;
}

/*Outputs
You passed.
Perfect!
*/
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Nested if else Statements

C++ provides the option of nesting an unlimited number of if/else statements.
For example:

int age = 18;
if (age > 14) {
if(age >= 18) {
cout << "Adult";
}
else {
cout << "Teenager";
}
}
else {
if (age > 0) {
cout << "Child";
}
else {
cout << "Something's wrong";
}
}

Remember that all else statements must have corresponding if statements.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
The if else Statement

In if/else statements, a single statement can be included without enclosing it
into curly braces.

int a = 10;
if (a > 4)
cout << "Yes";
else
cout << "No";

Including the curly braces anyway is a good practice, as they clarify the code and
make it easier to read.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Loops

A loop repeatedly executes a set of statements until a particular condition is satisfied.

A while loop statement repeatedly executes a target statement as long as a given condition
remains true.
Syntax:

while (condition) {
statement(s);
}

The loop iterates while the condition is true.
At the point when the condition becomes false, program control is shifted to the line
that immediately follows the loop.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
The while Loop

The loop's body is the block of statements within curly braces.
For example:

int num = 1;
while (num < 6) {
cout << "Number: " << num << endl;
num = num + 1;
}

/* Outputs
Number: 1
Number: 2
Number: 3
Number: 4
Number: 5
*/

The example above declares a variable equal to 1 (int num = 1).
The while loop checks the condition (num < 6), and executes the statements in
its body, which increment the value of num by one each time the loop runs.
After the 5th iteration, num becomes 6, and the condition is evaluated to false,
and the loop stops running.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
The while Loop

The increment value can be changed. If changed, the number of times the loop is run
will change, as well.

int num = 1;
while (num < 6) {
cout << "Number: " << num << endl;
num = num + 3;
}

/* Outputs
Number: 1
Number: 4
*/

Without a statement that eventually evaluates the loop condition to false, the
loop will continue indefinitely.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Using Increment or Decrement

The increment or decrement operators can be used to change values in the loop.
For example:

int num = 1;
while (num < 6) {
cout << "Number: " << num << endl;
num++;
}

/* Outputs
Number: 1
Number: 2
Number: 3
Number: 4
Number: 5
*/

num++ is equivalent to num = num + 1.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Using a while Loop

A loop can be used to obtain multiple inputs from the user.
Let's create a program that allows the user to enter a number 5 times, each time
storing the input in a variable.

int num = 1;
int number;
while (num <= 5) {
cin >> number;
num++;
}

The above code asks for user input 5 times, and each time saves the input in the number
variable.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Using a while Loop

Now let's modify our code to calculate the sum of the numbers the user has entered.

int num = 1;
int number;
int total = 0;
while (num <= 5) {
cin >> number;
total += number;
num++;
}
cout << total << endl;

The code above adds the number entered by the user to the total variable with each loop
iteration.
Once the loop stops executing, the value of total is printed. This value is the sum
of all of the numbers the user entered.
Note that the variable total has an initial value of 0.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Fill in the blanks to enter five numbers from the user and print their sum. Store the
sum in the variable named total.

int x = 1;
int number;
int total = 0;
while
(x <= 5) {
cin >> number;
total= total + number;
x++;
}
cout << "Sum: " << total << endl;
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
The for loop

A for loop is a repetition control structure that allows you to efficiently write a loop
that executes a specific number of times.
Syntax:

for ( init; condition; increment ) {
statement(s);
}

The init step is executed first, and does not repeat.
Next, the condition is evaluated, and the body of the loop is executed if the condition is true.
In the next step, the increment statement updates the loop control variable.
Then, the loop's body repeats itself, only stopping when the condition becomes false.

For example:

for (int x = 1; x < 10; x++) {
// some code
}

The init and increment statements may be left out, if not needed, but remember that
the semicolons are mandatory.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
The for Loop

The example below uses a for loop to print numbers from 0 to 9.
for (int a = 0; a < 10; a++) {
cout << a << endl;
}

/* Outputs
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
*/

In the init step, we declared a variable a and set it to equal 0.
a < 10 is the condition.
After each iteration, the a++ increment statement is executed.
When a increments to 10, the condition evaluates to false, and the loop stops.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
The for Loop

It's possible to change the increment statement.

for (int a = 0; a < 50; a+=10) {
cout << a << endl;
}
/* Outputs
0
10
20
30
40
*/

You can also use decrement in the statement.

for (int a = 10; a >= 0; a -= 3) {
cout << a << endl;
}

/* Outputs
10
7
4
1
*/

When using the for loop, don't forget the semicolon after the init and condition statements.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
The do...while Loop

Unlike for and while loops, which test the loop condition at the top of the loop,
the do...while loop checks its condition at the bottom of the loop.
A do...while loop is similar to a while loop. The one difference is that the
do...while loop is guaranteed to execute at least one time.

Syntax:

do {
statement(s);
} while (condition);
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
The do...while Loop

Here is an example:
int a = 0;
do {
cout << a << endl;
a++;
} while(a < 5);

/* Outputs
0
1
2
3
4
*/

Don't forget the semicolon after the while statement.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
while vs. do...while

If the condition evaluated to false, the statements in the do would still run once:

int a = 42;
do {
cout << a << endl;
a++;
} while(a < 5);

// Outputs 42

The do...while loop executes the statements at least once, and then tests the condition.
The while loop executes the statement after testing condition.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
The do...while Loop

As with other loops, if the condition in the loop never evaluates to false, the loop
will run forever.
For example:

int a = 42;
do {
cout << a << endl;
} while (a > 0);

This will print 42 to the screen forever.
Always test your loops, so you know that they operate in the manner you expect.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Multiple Conditions

Sometimes there is a need to test a variable for equality against multiple values.
That can be achieved using multiple if statements.
For example:

int age = 42;
if (age == 16) {
cout <<"Too young";
}
if (age == 42) {
cout << "Adult";
}
if (age == 70) {
cout << "Senior";
}

The switch statement is a more elegant solution in this scenario.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
The switch Statement

The switch statement tests a variable against a list of values, which are called cases,
to determine whether it is equal to any of them.

switch (expression) {
case value1:
statement(s);
break;
case value2:
statement(s);
break;
...
case valueN:
statement(s);
break;
}

Switch evaluates the expression to determine whether it's equal to the value in
the case statement. If a match is found, it executes the statements in that case.
A switch can contain any number of case statements, which are followed by the
value in question and a colon.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
The switch Statement

Here is the previous example written using a single switch statement:

int age = 42;
switch (age) {
case 16:
cout << "Too young";
break;
case 42:
cout << "Adult";
break;
case 70:
cout << "Senior";
break;
}

The code above is equivalent to three if statements.
Notice the keyword break; that follows each case. That will be covered shortly.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
The default Case

In a switch statement, the optional default case can be used to perform a task when
none of the cases is determined to be true.

Example:

int age = 25;
switch (age) {
case 16:
cout << "Too young";
break;
case 42:
cout << "Adult";
break;
case 70:
cout << "Senior";
break;
default:
cout << "This is the default case";
}

// Outputs "This is the default case"

The default statement's code executes when none of the cases matches the switch expression.
The default case must appear at the end of the switch.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
The break Statement

The break statement's role is to terminate the switch statement.
In instances in which the variable is equal to a case, the statements that come after
the case continue to execute until they encounter a break statement. In other words,
leaving out a break statement results in the execution of all of the statements in
the following cases, even those that don't match the expression.
For example:

int age = 42;
switch (age) {
case 16:
cout << "Too young" << endl;
case 42:
cout << "Adult" << endl;
case 70:
cout << "Senior" << endl;
default:
cout <<"This is the default case" << endl;
}
/* Outputs
Adult
Senior
This is the default case
*/

As you can see, the program executed the matching case statement, printing "Adult" to
the screen. With no specified break statement, the statements continued to run after
the matching case. Thus, all the other case statements printed. This type of behavior
is called fall-through.
As the switch statement's final case, the default case requires no break statement.
The break statement can also be used to break out of a loop.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Logical Operators && || !

Use logical operators to combine conditional statements and return true or false.
As you can see, the program executed the matching case statement, printing "Adult" to
the screen. With no specified break statement, the statements continued to run after
the matching case. Thus, all the other case statements printed. This type of behavior
is called fall-through.
As the switch statement's final case, the default case requires no break statement.
The break statement can also be used to break out of a loop.

In the AND operator, both operands must be true for the entire expression to be true.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
The AND Operator

For example:
int age = 20;
if (age > 16 && age < 60) {
cout << "Accepted!" << endl;
}

// Outputs "Accepted"

In the example above, the logical AND operator was used to combine both expressions.
The expression in the if statement evaluates to true only if both expressions are true.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
The AND Operator

Within a single if statement, logical operators can be used to combine multiple conditions.
int age = 20;
int grade = 80;

if (age > 16 && age < 60 && grade > 50) {
cout << "Accepted!" << endl;
}

The entire expression evaluates to true only if all of the conditions are true.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
The OR Operator

The OR (||) operator returns true if any one of its operands is true.
Example:

int age = 16;
int score = 90;
if (age > 20 || score > 50) {
cout << "Accepted!" << endl;
}

// Outputs "Accepted!"

You can combine any number of logical OR statements you want.
In addition, multiple OR and AND statements may be chained together.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Logical NOT

The logical NOT (!) operator works with just a single operand, reversing its logical
state. Thus, if a condition is true, the NOT operator makes it false, and vice versa.

int age = 10;
if ( !(age > 16) ) {
cout << "Your age is less than 16" << endl;
}

// Outputs "Your age is less than 16"
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Data Types

The operating system allocates memory and selects what will be stored in the reserved memory based on the variable's data type.
The data type defines the proper use of an identifier, what kind of data can be stored, and which types of operations can be performed.
There are a number of built-in types in C++.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Expressions

The examples below show legal and illegal C++ expressions.
55+15 // legal C++ expression
//Both operands of the + operator are integers

55 + "John" // illegal
// The + operator is not defined for integer and string

"Hello," + "John" // legal
// The + operator is used for string concatenation
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Numeric Data Types

Numeric data types include:
Integers (whole numbers), such as -7, 42.
Floating point numbers, such as 3.14, -42.67.
We'll explain more about data types in the lessons to come.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Strings & Characters

A string is composed of numbers, characters, or symbols. String literals are placed in double
quotation marks; some examples are "Hello", "My name is David", and similar.
Characters are single letters or symbols, and must be enclosed between single quotes,
like 'a', 'b', etc.
In C++, single quotation marks indicate a character; double quotes create a string
literal. While 'a' is a single a character literal, "a" is a string literal.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Booleans

The Boolean data type returns just two possible values: true (1) and false (0).
Conditional expressions are an example of Boolean data type.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Integers

The integer type holds non-fractional numbers, which can be positive or negative. Examples of
integers would include 42, -42, and similar numbers.
The size of the integer type varies according to the architecture of the system on which the
program runs, although 4 bytes is the minimum size in most modern system architectures.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Integers

Use the int keyword to define the integer data type.
int a = 42;

Several of the basic types, including integers, can be modified using one or more of these
type modifiers:
signed: A signed integer can hold both negative and positive numbers.
unsigned: An unsigned integer can hold only positive values.
short: Half of the default size.
long: Twice the default size.

For example:
unsigned long int a;
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Floating Point Numbers

A floating point type variable can hold a real number, such as 420.0, -3.33, or 0.03325.
The words floating point refer to the fact that a varying number of digits can appear before
and after the decimal point. You could say that the decimal has the ability to "float".

There are three different floating point data types: float, double, and long double.

In most modern architectures, a float is 4 bytes, a double is 8, and a long double can be
equivalent to a double (8 bytes), or 16 bytes.
For example:

double temp = 4.21;

Floating point data types are always signed, which means that they have the capability
to hold both positive and negative values.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Strings

A string is an ordered sequence of characters, enclosed in double quotation marks.
It is part of the Standard Library.
You need to include the <string> library to use the string data type. Alternatively, you can
use a library that includes the string library.

#include <string>
using namespace std;
int main() {
string a = "I am learning C++";
return 0;
}

The <string> library is included in the <iostream> library, so you don't need to
include <string> separately, if you already use <iostream>.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


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