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PostPosted: Mon Feb 11, 2019 2:39 am 
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Joined: Tue Jan 25, 2011 8:51 pm
Posts: 49
class MyClass {
public static void main(String[ ] args) {
System.out.println("I am learning Java");
}
}
---------------------------------------------
class Apples {
public static void main(String[ ]args) {
System.out.println("Hello, World!");
}
}
----------------------------------------------
// this is a single-line comment
x = 5; // a single-line comment after code
-----------------------------------------------
/* This is also a
comment spanning
multiple lines */
-----------------------------------------------

/* This is a single-line comment:

// a single-line comment

*/

-------------------------------------------------

/** This is a documentation comment */

/** This is also a
documentation comment */

---------------------------------------------------

Javadoc is a tool which comes with JDK and it is used for generating Java code documentation in HTML format from Java source code which has required documentation in a predefined format.

When a documentation comment begins with more than two asterisks, Javadoc assumes that you want to create a "box" around the comment in the source code. It simply ignores the extra asterisks.
For example:
/**********************

This is the start of a method

***********************/

This will retain just the text "This is the start of a method" for the documentation.
---------------------------------------------------------

Variables

Variables store data for processing.
A variable is given a name (or identifier), such as area, age, height, and the like. The name uniquely identifies each variable, assigning a value to the variable and retrieving the value stored.

Variables have types. Some examples:
- int: for integers (whole numbers) such as 123 and -456
- double: for floating-point or real numbers with optional decimal points and fractional parts in fixed or scientific notations, such as 3.1416, -55.66.
- String: for texts such as "Hello" or "Good Morning!". Text strings are enclosed within double quotes.

You can declare a variable of a type and assign it a value. Example:
String name = "David";

This creates a variable called name of type String, and assigns it the value "David".
It is important to note that a variable is associated with a type, and is only capable of storing values of that particular type. For example, an int variable can store integer values, such as 123; but it cannot store real numbers, such as 12.34, or texts, such as "Hello".

--------------------------------------------------------------

Variables

Examples of variable declarations:
class MyClass {
public static void main(String[ ] args) {
String name ="David";
int age = 42;
double score =15.9;
char group = 'Z';
}
}

char stands for character and holds a single character.

Another type is the Boolean type, which has only two possible values: true and false.
This data type is used for simple flags that track true/false conditions.
For example:
boolean online = true;

You can use a comma-separated list to declare more than one variable of the specified type. Example: int a = 42, b = 11;
--------------------------------------------------------------------------

class Apples {
public static void main(String[ ]args) {
String name = "John";
int age = 24;
double height = 189.87;
}
}

----------------------------------------------------------------------------

The Math Operators

Java provides a rich set of operators to use in manipulating variables. A value used on either side of an operator is called an operand.
For example, in the expression below, the numbers 6 and 3 are operands of the plus operator:
int x = 6 + 3;

Java arithmetic operators:
+ addition
- subtraction
* multiplication
/ division
% modulo
Arithmetic operators are used in mathematical expressions in the same way that they are used in algebraic equations.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Addition

The + operator adds together two values, such as two constants, a constant and a variable, or a variable and a variable. Here are a few examples of addition:
int sum1 = 50 + 10;
int sum2 = sum1 + 66;
int sum3 = sum2 + sum2;

Subtraction
The - operator subtracts one value from another.
int sum1 = 1000 - 10;
int sum2 = sum1 - 5;
int sum3 = sum1 - sum2;

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Multiplication

The * operator multiplies two values.
int sum1 = 1000 * 2;
int sum2 = sum1 * 10;
int sum3 = sum1 * sum2;

Division
The / operator divides one value by another.
int sum1 = 1000 / 5;
int sum2 = sum1 / 2;
int sum3 = sum1 / sum2;

In the example above, the result of the division equation will be a whole number, as int is used as the data type. You can use double to retrieve a value with a decimal point.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Modulo

The modulo (or remainder) math operation performs an integer division of one value by another, and returns the remainder of that division.
The operator for the modulo operation is the percentage (%) character.
Example:
int value = 23;
int res = value % 6; // res is 5

Dividing 23 by 6 returns a quotient of 3, with a remainder of 5. Thus, the value of 5 is assigned to the res variable.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Increment Operators

An increment or decrement operator provides a more convenient and compact way to increase or decrease the value of a variable by one.
For instance, the statement x=x+1; can be simplified to ++x;
Example:
int test = 5;
++test; // test is now 6

The decrement operator (--) is used to decrease the value of a variable by one.
int test = 5;
--test; // test is now 4

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Prefix & Postfix

Two forms, prefix and postfix, may be used with both the increment and decrement operators.
With prefix form, the operator appears before the operand, while in postfix form, the operator appears after the operand. Below is an explanation of how the two forms work:
Prefix: Increments the variable's value and uses the new value in the expression.
Example:
int x = 34;
int y = ++x; // y is 35

The value of x is first incremented to 35, and is then assigned to y, so the values of both x and y are now 35.
Postfix: The variable's value is first used in the expression and is then increased.
Example:
int x = 34;
int y = x++; // y is 34

x is first assigned to y, and is then incremented by one. Therefore, x becomes 35, while y is assigned the value of 34.
The same applies to the decrement operator.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Assignment Operators

You are already familiar with the assignment operator (=), which assigns a value to a variable.
int value = 5;

This assigned the value 5 to a variable called value of type int.

Java provides a number of assignment operators to make it easier to write code.
Addition and assignment (+=):
int num1 = 4;
int num2 = 8;
num2 += num1; // num2 = num2 + num1;

// num2 is 12 and num1 is 4



Subtraction and assignment (-=):
int num1 = 4;
int num2 = 8;
num2 -= num1; // num2 = num2 - num1;

// num2 is 4 and num1 is 4

Similarly, Java supports multiplication and assignment (*=), division and assignment (/=), and remainder and assignment (%=).
----------------------------------------------------------------------

Strings

A String is an object that represents a sequence of characters.
For example, "Hello" is a string of 5 characters.

For example:
String s = "SoloLearn";

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

Fill in the blanks to print "Hello".
String var;
var = "Hello";
System.out.println(var );

------------------------------------------------------------------------

String Concatenation

The + (plus) operator between strings adds them together to make a new string. This process is called concatenation.
The resulted string is the first string put together with the second string.
For example:
String firstName, lastName;
firstName = "David";
lastName = "Williams";

System.out.println("My name is " + firstName +" "+lastName);

// Prints: My name is David Williams

The char data type represents a single character.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Getting User Input

While Java provides many different methods for getting user input, the Scanner object is the most common, and perhaps the easiest to implement. Import the Scanner class to use the Scanner object, as seen here:
import java.util.Scanner;

In order to use the Scanner class, create an instance of the class by using the following syntax:
Scanner myVar = new Scanner(System.in);

You can now read in different kinds of input data that the user enters.
Here are some methods that are available through the Scanner class:
Read a byte - nextByte()
Read a short - nextShort()
Read an int - nextInt()
Read a long - nextLong()
Read a float - nextFloat()
Read a double - nextDouble()
Read a boolean - nextBoolean()
Read a complete line - nextLine()
Read a word - next()

Example of a program used to get user input:
import java.util.Scanner;

class MyClass {
public static void main(String[ ] args) {
Scanner myVar = new Scanner(System.in);
System.out.println(myVar.nextLine());
}
}

This will wait for the user to input something and print that input.
The code might seem complex, but you will understand it all in the upcoming lessons.

---------------------------------------------------------------------------

Decision Making

Conditional statements are used to perform different actions based on different conditions.
The if statement is one of the most frequently used conditional statements.
If the if statement's condition expression evaluates to true, the block of code inside the if statement is executed. If the expression is found to be false, the first set of code after the end of the if statement (after the closing curly brace) is executed.
Syntax:
if (condition) {
//Executes when the condition is true
}

Any of the following comparison operators may be used to form the condition:
< less than
> greater than
!= not equal to
== equal to
<= less than or equal to
>= greater than or equal to

For example:
int x = 7;
if(x < 42) {
System.out.println("Hi");
}

Remember that you need to use two equal signs (==) to test for equality, since a single equal sign is the assignment operator.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

if...else Statements

An if statement can be followed by an optional else statement, which executes when the condition evaluates to false.
For example:
int age = 30;

if (age < 16) {
System.out.println("Too Young");
} else {
System.out.println("Welcome!");
}
//Outputs "Welcome"

As age equals 30, the condition in the if statement evaluates to false and the else statement is executed.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Nested if Statements

You can use one if-else statement inside another if or else statement.
For example:
int age = 25;
if(age > 0) {
if(age > 16) {
System.out.println("Welcome!");
} else {
System.out.println("Too Young");
}
} else {
System.out.println("Error");
}
//Outputs "Welcome!"

You can nest as many if-else statements as you want.


Please fill in the missing parts of the nested if statement to print "it works!" to the screen.
int x = 37;
if (x > 22) {


if

(x > 31) {
System.

out

.println("it works!");
}
}
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

else if Statements

Instead of using nested if-else statements, you can use the else if statement to check multiple conditions.
For example:
int age = 25;

if(age <= 0) {
System.out.println("Error");
} else if(age <= 16) {
System.out.println("Too Young");
} else if(age < 100) {
System.out.println("Welcome!");
} else {
System.out.println("Really?");
}
//Outputs "Welcome!"

The code will check the condition to evaluate to true and execute the statements inside that block.
You can include as many else if statements as you need.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Logical Operators

Logical operators are used to combine multiple conditions.

Let's say you wanted your program to output "Welcome!" only when the variable age is greater than 18 and the variable money is greater than 500.
One way to accomplish this is to use nested if statements:
if (age > 18) {
if (money > 500) {
System.out.println("Welcome!");
}
}

However, using the AND logical operator (&&) is a better way:
if (age > 18 && money > 500) {
System.out.println("Welcome!");
}

If both operands of the AND operator are true, then the condition becomes true.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The OR Operator

The OR operator (||) checks if any one of the conditions is true.
The condition becomes true, if any one of the operands evaluates to true.
For example:
int age = 25;
int money = 100;

if (age > 18 || money > 500) {
System.out.println("Welcome!");
}
//Outputs "Welcome!"


The code above will print "Welcome!" if age is greater than 18 or if money is greater than 500.

The NOT (!) logical operator is used to reverse the logical state of its operand. If a condition is true, the NOT logical operator will make it false.
Example:
int age = 25;
if(!(age > 18)) {
System.out.println("Too Young");
} else {
System.out.println("Welcome");
}
//Outputs "Welcome"

!(age > 18) reads as "if age is NOT greater than 18".

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The switch Statement

A switch statement tests a variable for equality against a list of values. Each value is called a case, and the variable being switched on is checked for each case.
Syntax:
switch (expression) {
case value1 :
//Statements
break; //optional
case value2 :
//Statements
break; //optional
//You can have any number of case statements.
default : //Optional
//Statements
}

- When the variable being switched on is equal to a case, the statements following that case will execute until a break statement is reached.
- When a break statement is reached, the switch terminates, and the flow of control jumps to the next line after the switch statement.
- Not every case needs to contain a break. If no break appears, the flow of control will fall through to subsequent cases until a break is reached.

The example below tests day against a set of values and prints a corresponding message.
int day = 3;

switch(day) {
case 1:
System.out.println("Monday");
break;
case 2:
System.out.println("Tuesday");
break;
case 3:
System.out.println("Wednesday");
break;
}
// Outputs "Wednesday"

You can have any number of case statements within a switch. Each case is followed by the comparison value and a colon.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The default Statement

A switch statement can have an optional default case.
The default case can be used for performing a task when none of the cases is matched.

For example:
int day = 3;

switch(day) {
case 6:
System.out.println("Saturday");
break;
case 7:
System.out.println("Sunday");
break;
default:
System.out.println("Weekday");
}
// Outputs "Weekday"

No break is needed in the default case, as it is always the last statement in the switch.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

while Loops

A loop statement allows to repeatedly execute a statement or group of statements.

A while loop statement repeatedly executes a target statement as long as a given condition is true.

Example:
int x = 3;

while(x > 0) {
System.out.println(x);
x--;
}
/*
Outputs
3
2
1
*/


The while loops check for the condition x > 0. If it evaluates to true, it executes the statements within its body. Then it checks for the statement again and repeats.
Notice the statement x--. This decrements x each time the loop runs, and makes the loop stop when x reaches 0.
Without the statement, the loop would run forever.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

while Loops

When the expression is tested and the result is false, the loop body is skipped and the first statement after the while loop is executed.
Example:
int x = 6;

while( x < 10 )
{
System.out.println(x);
x++;
}
System.out.println("Loop ended");

/*
6
7
8
9
Loop ended
*/

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

for Loops

Another loop structure is the for loop. A for loop allows you to efficiently write a loop that needs to execute a specific number of times.
Syntax:
for (initialization; condition; increment/decrement) {
statement(s)
}

Initialization: Expression executes only once during the beginning of loop
Condition: Is evaluated each time the loop iterates. The loop executes the statement repeatedly, until this condition returns false.
Increment/Decrement: Executes after each iteration of the loop.

The following example prints the numbers 1 through 5.
for(int x = 1; x <=5; x++) {
System.out.println(x);
}

/* Outputs
1
2
3
4
5
*/

This initializes x to the value 1, and repeatedly prints the value of x, until the condition x<=5 becomes false. On each iteration, the statement x++ is executed, incrementing x by one.
Notice the semicolon (;) after initialization and condition in the syntax.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

for Loops

You can have any type of condition and any type of increment statements in the for loop.
The example below prints only the even values between 0 and 10:
for(int x=0; x<=10; x=x+2) {
System.out.println(x);
}
/*
0
2
4
6
8
10
*/

A for loop is best when the starting and ending numbers are known.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

do...while Loops

A do...while loop is similar to a while loop, except that a do...while loop is guaranteed to execute at least one time.
Example:
int x = 1;
do {
System.out.println(x);
x++;
} while(x < 5);

/*
1
2
3
4
*/

Notice that the condition appears at the end of the loop, so the statements in the loop execute once before it is tested.
Even with a false condition, the code will run once. Example:
int x = 1;
do {
System.out.println(x);
x++;
} while(x < 0);

//Outputs 1

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Loop Control Statements

The break and continue statements change the loop's execution flow.
The break statement terminates the loop and transfers execution to the statement immediately following the loop.
Example:
int x = 1;

while(x > 0) {
System.out.println(x);
if(x == 4) {
break;
}
x++;
}

/* Outputs
1
2
3
4
*/

The continue statement causes the loop to skip the remainder of its body and then immediately retest its condition prior to reiterating. In other words, it makes the loop skip to its next iteration.
Example:
for(int x=10; x<=40; x=x+10) {
if(x == 30) {
continue;
}
System.out.println(x);
}
/* Outputs
10
20
40
*/

As you can see, the above code skips the value of 30, as directed by the continue statement.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Arrays

An array is a collection of variables of the same type.
When you need to store a list of values, such as numbers, you can store them in an array, instead of declaring separate variables for each number.

To declare an array, you need to define the type of the elements with square brackets.
For example, to declare an array of integers:
int[ ] arr;

The name of the array is arr. The type of elements it will hold is int.

Now, you need to define the array's capacity, or the number of elements it will hold. To accomplish this, use the keyword new.
int[ ] arr = new int[5];

The code above declares an array of 5 integers.
In an array, the elements are ordered and each has a specific and constant position, which is called an index.

To reference elements in an array, type the name of the array followed by the index position within a pair of square brackets.
Example:
arr[2] = 42;

This assigns a value of 42 to the element with 2 as its index.
Note that elements in the array are identified with zero-based index numbers, meaning that the first element's index is 0 rather than one. So, the maximum index of the array int[5] is 4.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Initializing Arrays

Java provides a shortcut for instantiating arrays of primitive types and strings.
If you already know what values to insert into the array, you can use an array literal.
Example of an array literal:
String[ ] myNames = { "A", "B", "C", "D"};
System.out.println(myNames[2]);

// Outputs "C"

Place the values in a comma-separated list, enclosed in curly braces.
The code above automatically initializes an array containing 4 elements, and stores the provided values.

Sometimes you might see the square brackets placed after the array name, which also works, but the
preferred way is to place the brackets after the array's data type.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Array Length

You can access the length of an array (the number of elements it stores) via its length property.
Example:
int[ ] intArr = new int[5];
System.out.println(intArr.length);

//Outputs 5

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Arrays

Now that we know how to set and get array elements, we can calculate the sum of all elements in an array by using loops.
The for loop is the most used loop when working with arrays, as we can use the length of the array to determine how many times to run the loop.
int [ ] myArr = {6, 42, 3, 7};
int sum=0;
for(int x=0; x<myArr.length; x++) {
sum += myArr[x];
}
System.out.println(sum);

// 58

In the code above, we declared a variable sum to store the result and assigned it 0.
Then we used a for loop to iterate through the array, and added each element's value to the variable.
The condition of the for loop is x<myArr.length, as the last element's index is myArr.length-1.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Enhanced for Loop

The enhanced for loop (sometimes called a "for each" loop) is used to traverse elements in arrays.
The advantages are that it eliminates the possibility of bugs and makes the code easier to read.
Example:
int[ ] primes = {2, 3, 5, 7};

for (int t: primes) {
System.out.println(t);
}

/*
2
3
5
7
*/

The enhanced for loop declares a variable of a type compatible with the elements of the array being accessed. The variable will be available within the for block, and its value will be the same as the current array element.
So, on each iteration of the loop, the variable t will be equal to the corresponding element in the array.
Notice the colon after the variable in the syntax.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Multidimensional Arrays

Multidimensional arrays are array that contain other arrays. The two-dimensional array is the most basic multidimensional array.
To create multidimensional arrays, place each array within its own set of square brackets. Example of a two-dimensional array:
int[ ][ ] sample = { {1, 2, 3}, {4, 5, 6} };

This declares an array with two arrays as its elements.
To access an element in the two-dimensional array, provide two indexes, one for the array, and another for the element inside that array.
The following example accesses the first element in the second array of sample.
int x = sample[1][0];
System.out.println(x);

// Outputs 4

The array's two indexes are called row index and column index.

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Multidimensional Arrays

You can get and set a multidimensional array's elements using the same pair of square brackets.
Example:
int[ ][ ] myArr = { {1, 2, 3}, {4}, {5, 6, 7} };
myArr[0][2] = 42;
int x = myArr[1][0]; // 4

The above two-dimensional array contains three arrays. The first array has three elements, the second has a single element and the last of these has three elements.
In Java, you're not limited to just two-dimensional arrays. Arrays can be nested within arrays to as many levels as your program needs. All you need to declare an array with more than two dimensions, is to add as many sets of empty brackets as you need. However, these are harder to maintain.
Remember, that all array members must be of the same type.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Object-Orientation

Java uses Object-Oriented Programming (OOP), a programming style that is intended to make thinking about programming closer to thinking about the real world.
In OOP, each object is an independent unit with a unique identity, just as objects in the real world are.
An apple is an object; so is a mug. Each has its unique identity. It's possible to have two mugs that look identical, but they are still separate, unique objects.

Objects also have characteristics, which are used to describe them.
For example, a car can be red or blue, a mug can be full or empty, and so on. These characteristics are also called attributes. An attribute describes the current state of an object.
In the real world, each object behaves in its own way. The car moves, the phone rings, and so on.
The same applies to objects: behavior is specific to the object's type.
In summary, in object oriented programming, each object has three dimensions: identity, attributes, and behavior.
Attributes describe the object's current state, and what the object is capable of doing is demonstrated through the object's behavior.

Classes
A class describes what the object will be, but is separate from the object itself.
In other words, classes can be described as blueprints, descriptions, or definitions for an object. You can use the same class as a blueprint for creating multiple objects. The first step is to define the class, which then becomes a blueprint for object creation.

Each class has a name, and each is used to define attributes and behavior.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Methods

Methods define behavior. A method is a collection of statements that are grouped together to perform an operation. System.out.println() is an example of a method.
You can define your own methods to perform your desired tasks.
Let's consider the following code:
class MyClass {

static void sayHello() {
System.out.println("Hello World!");
}

public static void main(String[ ] args) {
sayHello();
}
}
// Outputs "Hello World!"


The code above declares a method called "sayHello", which prints a text, and then gets called in main.
To call a method, type its name and then follow the name with a set of parentheses.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------

public static void main(String[ ] args) {


hello()

;
}
static void hello() {
System.out.println("hi");
}

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Calling Methods

You can call a method as many times as necessary.
When a method runs, the code jumps down to where the method is defined, executes the code inside of it, then goes back and proceeds to the next line.
Example:
class MyClass {

static void sayHello() {
System.out.println("Hello World!");
}

public static void main(String[ ] args) {
sayHello();
sayHello();
sayHello();
}
}

// Hello World!
// Hello World!
// Hello World!
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Method Parameters

You can also create a method that takes some data, called parameters, along with it when you call it. Write parameters within the method's parentheses.
For example, we can modify our sayHello() method to take and output a String parameter.
class MyClass {

static void sayHello(String name) {
System.out.println("Hello " + name);
}

public static void main(String[ ] args) {
sayHello("David");
sayHello("Amy");
}

}
// Hello David
// Hello Amy

The method above takes a String called name as a parameter, which is used in the method's body. Then, when calling the method, we pass the parameter's value inside the parentheses.
Methods can take multiple, comma-separated parameters.
The advantages of using methods instead of simple statements include the following:
- code reuse: You can write a method once, and use it multiple times, without having to rewrite the code each time.
- parameters: Based on the parameters passed in, methods can perform various actions.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

public static void main(String[ ] args) {
doSomething(4);
}
static void doSomething(int x) {
System.out.println(x*x);
}

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The Return Type

The return keyword can be used in methods to return a value.
For example, we could define a method named sum that returns the sum of its two parameters.
static int sum(int val1, int val2) {
return val1 + val2;
}

Notice that in the method definition, we defined the return type before we defined the method name. For our sum method, it is int, as it takes two parameters of the type int and returns their sum, which is also an int.
The static keyword will be discussed in a future lesson.

Now, we can use the method in our main.
class MyClass {

static int sum(int val1, int val2) {
return val1 + val2;
}

public static void main(String[ ] args) {
int x = sum(2, 5);
System.out.println(x);
}
}
// Outputs "7"

As the method returns a value, we can assign it to a variable.
When you do not need to return any value from your method, use the keyword void.
Notice the void keyword in the definition of the main method - this means that main does not return anything.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The Return Type

Take a look at the same code from our previous lesson with explaining comments, so you can better understand how it works:
// returns an int value 5
static int returnFive() {
return 5;
}

// has a parameter
static void sayHelloTo(String name) {
System.out.println("Hello " + name);
}

// simply prints"Hello World!"
static void sayHello() {
System.out.println("Hello World!");
}

Having gained knowledge of method return types and parameters, let's take another look at the definition of the main method.
public static void main(String[ ] args)

This definition indicates that the main method takes an array of Strings as its parameters, and does not return a value.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------

The Return Type

Let's create a method that takes two parameters of type int and returns the greater one, then call it in main:
public static void main(String[ ] args) {
int res = max(7, 42);
System.out.println(res); //42
}

static int max(int a, int b) {
if(a > b) {
return a;
}
else {
return b;
}
}

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

Creating Classes

In order to create your own custom objects, you must first create the corresponding classes. This is accomplished by right clicking on the src folder in Eclipse and selecting Create->New->Class. Give your class a name and click Finish to add the new class to your project:


As you can see, Eclipse has already added the initial code for the class.
Now lets create a simple method in our new class.
Animal.java
public class Animal {
void bark() {
System.out.println("Woof-Woof");
}
}

We declared a bark() method in our Animal class.
Now, in order to use the class and it's methods, we need to declare an object of that class.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Fill in the blanks to create a class with a single method called "test".
public

class

A {
public void

test

() {
System.out.println(''Hi'');
}
}

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Creating Objects

Let's head over to our main and create a new object of our class.
MyClass.java
class MyClass {
public static void main(String[ ] args) {
Animal dog = new Animal();
dog.bark();
}
}
// Outputs "Woof-Woof"

Now, dog is an object of type Animal. Thus we can call its bark() method, using the name of the object and a dot.
The dot notation is used to access the object's attributes and methods.
You have just created your first object!
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Defining Attributes

A class has attributes and methods. The attributes are basically variables within a class.
Let's create a class called Vehicle, with its corresponding attributes and methods.
public class Vehicle {
int maxSpeed;
int wheels;
String color;
double fuelCapacity;

void horn() {
System.out.println("Beep!");
}
}

maxSpeed, wheels, color, and fuelCapacity are the attributes of our Vehicle class, and horn() is the only method.
You can define as many attributes and methods as necessary.

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Creating Objects

Next, we can create multiple objects of our Vehicle class, and use the dot syntax to access their attributes and methods.
class MyClass {
public static void main(String[ ] args) {
Vehicle v1 = new Vehicle();
Vehicle v2 = new Vehicle();
v1.color = "red";
v2.horn();
}
}

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Access Modifiers

Now let's discuss the public keyword in front of the main method.
public static void main(String[ ] args)

public is an access modifier, meaning that it is used to set the level of access. You can use access modifiers for classes, attributes, and methods.

For classes, the available modifiers are public or default (left blank), as described below:
public: The class is accessible by any other class.
default: The class is accessible only by classes in the same package.

The following choices are available for attributes and methods:
default: A variable or method declared with no access control modifier is available to any other class in the same package.
public: Accessible from any other class.
protected: Provides the same access as the default access modifier, with the addition that subclasses can access protected methods and variables of the superclass (Subclasses and superclasses are covered in upcoming lessons).
private: Accessible only within the declared class itself.

Example:
public class Vehicle {
private int maxSpeed;
private int wheels;
private String color;
private double fuelCapacity;

public void horn() {
System.out.println("Beep!");
}
}

It's a best practice to keep the variables within a class private. The variables are accessible and modified using Getters and Setters.
Tap Continue to learn about Getters and Setters.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Getters & Setters

Getters and Setters are used to effectively protect your data, particularly when creating classes. For each variable, the get method returns its value, while the set method sets the value.

Getters start with get, followed by the variable name, with the first letter of the variable name capitalized.
Setters start with set, followed by the variable name, with the first letter of the variable name capitalized.

Example:
public class Vehicle {
private String color;

// Getter
public String getColor() {
return color;
}

// Setter
public void setColor(String c) {
this.color = c;
}
}

The getter method returns the value of the attribute.
The setter method takes a parameter and assigns it to the attribute.
The keyword this is used to refer to the current object. Basically, this.color is the color attribute of the current object.

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Getters & Setters

Once our getter and setter have been defined, we can use it in our main:
public static void main(String[ ] args) {
Vehicle v1 = new Vehicle();
v1.setColor("Red");
System.out.println(v1.getColor());
}

//Outputs "Red"

Getters and setters allow us to have control over the values. You may, for example, validate the given value in the setter before actually setting the value.
Getters and setters are fundamental building blocks for encapsulation, which will be covered in the next module.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Constructors

Constructors are special methods invoked when an object is created and are used to initialize them.
A constructor can be used to provide initial values for object attributes.

- A constructor name must be same as its class name.
- A constructor must have no explicit return type.

Example of a constructor:
public class Vehicle {
private String color;
Vehicle() {
color = "Red";
}
}

The Vehicle() method is the constructor of our class, so whenever an object of that class is created, the color attribute will be set to "Red".
A constructor can also take parameters to initialize attributes.
public class Vehicle {
private String color;
Vehicle(String c) {
color = c;
}
}

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

Using Constructors

The constructor is called when you create an object using the new keyword.
Example:
public class MyClass {
public static void main(String[ ] args) {
Vehicle v = new Vehicle("Blue");
}
}

This will call the constructor, which will set the color attribute to "Blue".

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Constructors

A single class can have multiple constructors with different numbers of parameters.
The setter methods inside the constructors can be used to set the attribute values.

Example:
public class Vehicle {
private String color;

Vehicle() {
this.setColor("Red");
}
Vehicle(String c) {
this.setColor(c);
}

// Setter
public void setColor(String c) {
this.color = c;
}
}

The class above has two constructors, one without any parameters setting the color attribute to a default value of "Red", and another constructor that accepts a parameter and assigns it to the attribute.

Now, we can use the constructors to create objects of our class.
//color will be "Red"
Vehicle v1 = new Vehicle();

//color will be "Green"
Vehicle v2 = new Vehicle("Green");

Java automatically provides a default constructor, so all classes have a constructor, whether one is specifically defined or not.
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Value Types

Value types are the basic types, and include byte, short, int, long, float, double, boolean, and char.
These data types store the values assigned to them in the corresponding memory locations.
So, when you pass them to a method, you basically operate on the variable's value, rather than on the variable itself.
Example:
public class MyClass {
public static void main(String[ ] args) {
int x = 5;
addOneTo(x);
System.out.println(x);
}
static void addOneTo(int num) {
num = num + 1;
}
}
// Outputs "5"


The method from the example above takes the value of its parameter, which is why the original variable is not affected and 5 remains as its value.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Reference Types

A reference type stores a reference (or address) to the memory location where the corresponding data is stored.
When you create an object using the constructor, you create a reference variable.
For example, consider having a Person class defined:
public class MyClass {
public static void main(String[ ] args) {
Person j;
j = new Person("John");
j.setAge(20);
celebrateBirthday(j);
System.out.println(j.getAge());
}
static void celebrateBirthday(Person p) {
p.setAge(p.getAge() + 1);
}
}
//Outputs "21"

The method celebrateBirthday takes a Person object as its parameter, and increments its attribute.
Because j is a reference type, the method affects the object itself, and is able to change the actual value of its attribute.
Arrays and Strings are also reference data types.
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