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 Post subject: Syntax of PHP
PostPosted: Fri Mar 20, 2015 9:37 am 
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Joined: Tue Jan 25, 2011 8:51 pm
Posts: 49
List Of Syntax Used In PHP!
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Here's a cheat sheet to add to the collection of PHP programmers, happy coding!
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Language Category: Object Oriented, Dynamically typed
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Various
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{ ... } block (grouping statements, especially when statements are not expressions)
nothing needed breaking lines (useful when end-of-line and/or indentation has a special meaning)
/* ... */ commenting (non nestable)
# commenting (until end of line)
// commenting (until end of line)
< > <= >= comparison
strcmp comparison (returns 3 values (i.e. inferior, equal or superior))
/** ... */(1) documentation comment (non nestable)
Err:510 equality / inequality (shallow)
( ... ) grouping expressions
__LINE__ __FILE__ information about the current line and file
eval runtime evaluation
case-sensitive: variables
case-insensitive: keywords, functions, constants... tokens (case-sensitivity (keywords, variable identifiers...))
[_a-zA-Z][_a-zA-Z0-9]* tokens (variable identifier regexp)
= variable assignment or declaration (assignment)
--------------------------------------------------------------
Functions
--------------------------------------------------------------
create_function(',','...') anonymous function
f(a,b,...) function call
f() function call (with no parameter)
Return(3) function return value (breaks the control flow)
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Control Flow
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continue / break breaking control flow (continue / break)
Return(3) breaking control flow (returning a value)
if (c) ... if_then
if (c): ... endif if_then
if (c) b1 elseif (c2) b2 else b3 if_then_else
if (c): b1 elseif (c2): b2 else: b3 endif if_then_else
c ? b1 : b2 if_then_else
for loop (for "a la C" (while + initialisation))
for ($i = 1; $i <= 10; $i--) ... loop (for each value in a numeric range, 1 decrement)
for ($i = 1; $i <= 10; $i++) ... loop (for each value in a numeric range, 1 increment (see also the entries about ranges))
for ($i = 1; $i <= 10; $i += 2) ... loop (for each value in a numeric range, free increment)
while (c) ... loop (while condition do something)
switch (val) {
case v1: ...; break;
case v2: case v3: ...; break;
default: ...;
} multiple selection (switch)
; sequence
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
Types
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
(t) e cast (upcast)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
Object Oriented & Reflexivity
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class class declaration
this current instance
get_class get the type/class corresponding to an object/instance/value
object->method(para) method invocation
get_class_methods methods available
o2 = o(4) object cloning
$o2 = $o object cloning
new object creation
new class_name(...) object creation
is_a testing class membership
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Strings
-------------------------------------------------------------
s[n] accessing n-th character
chr ascii to character
ord character to ascii
(string) e convert something to a string (see also string interpolation)
str_repeat duplicate n times
substr extract a substring
strpos locate a substring
strrpos locate a substring (starting at the end)
all strings allow multi-line strings multi-line
serialize serialize (marshalling)
print simple print (on strings)
Echo(5) simple print (on strings)
printf simple print (printf-like)
sprintf sprintf-like
0 string concatenation
Err:510 string equality & inequality
strlen string size
"\n" strings (end-of-line (without writing the real CR or LF character))
"... $v ..." strings (with interpolation of variables)
<< strings (with interpolation of variables)
'...' strings (with no interpolation of variables)
string type name
unserialize unserialize (un-marshalling)
strtoupper / strtolower upper / lower case character
strtoupper / strtolower uppercase / lowercase / capitalized string
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Booleans
------------------------------------------------------------------------
false false value
NULL false value
0(6) false value
0 false value
"" false value
"0" false value
array() false value
! logical not
|| / && logical or / and (short circuit)
or / and logical or / and (short circuit)
true true value
bool type name
boolean type name
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Bags and Lists
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
array_unshift adding an element at the beginning (list cons) (side-effect)
array_push adding an element at the end (side-effect)
foreach for each element do something
array_shift get the first element and remove it
array_pop get the last element and remove it
in_array is an element in the list
foreach($l as $i => $v) iterate with index
join(s, l) join a list of strings in a string using a glue string
implode(s, l) join a list of strings in a string using a glue string
0 list concatenation
array_merge list concatenation
array(a, b, c) list constructor
count list size
a[i] list/array indexing
array_unique remove duplicates
array_reverse reverse
Sort(7) sort
array_map transform a list (or bag) in another one
array type name
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Various Data Types
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
h[k] dictionary (access: read/write)
array( a => b, c => d ) dictionary (constructor)
isset(h[k]), array_key_exists(k, h) dictionary (has the key ?)
array_keys dictionary (list of keys)
array_values dictionary (list of values)
array_merge(8) dictionary (merge)
unset(h[k]) dictionary (remove by key)
array dictionary (type name)
?: optional value (null coalescing)
range range (inclusive .. inclusive)
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Mathematics
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
+ / - / * / / addition / subtraction / multiplication / division
& / | / ^ bitwise operators (and / or / xor)
~ bitwise operators (bitwise inversion)
<< / >> bitwise operators (left shift / right shift / unsigned right shift)
pow exponentiation (power)
log10 logarithm (base 10)
log logarithm (base e)
% modulo (modulo of -3 / 2 is -1)
-0 negation
1000.0, 1E3 numbers syntax (floating point)
1000 numbers syntax (integers)
mathematical operator priorities and associativities (addition vs multiplication)
rand random (random number)
mt_rand random (random number)
srand random (seed the pseudo random generator)
sqrt / exp / abs square root / e-exponential / absolute value
sin / cos / tan trigonometry (basic)
/ round / floor / ceil truncate / round / floor / ceil
float type name (floating point)
int type name (integers)
integer type name (integers)
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Remarks
(1) for C, it is not a standard convention, but it is the more widespread
(2) === and !== differ from == and != when the objects' type differ
(3) in Lua, "return xxx" can only appear before a block end. in Matlab, only in inline('...')
(4) object cloning is the default, uses the copy constructor in C++
(5) in BourneShell, adding an end-of-line
(6) beware of 0.0 which is true in Pike!
(7) in Scheme, not standard, but nearly standard
(8) right-bias


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